1. Juego de gato

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    Officials in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have determined that certain species not native to the U.S. are at risk of becoming invasive should they enter this country. As part of its effort to prevent the introduction of invasive or potentially invasive weeds, the USDA maintains an official list of &quot;federal noxious weeds&quot; (FNW) (7 CFR 360.200 and 361.6). Many taxa on this list are currently serious weeds elsewhere in the world, and about two-thirds of the taxa are currently found in the U.S. Most of the FNW taxa are angiosperms, but a few are ferns and one is a green alga. NOTE that the ferns and alga are not included in this app. <br />Fruits and seeds are the plant disseminules most responsible for the spread of weeds to new regions. Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules of the U.S. Keys was developed to enable accurate identification of FNW angiosperm disseminules. The three keys (Grasses=Poaceae; Legumes=Fabaceae; and Other Angiosperm Plant Families) were designed to be used by officials at U.S. ports responsible for identification of plant pests. It may also be a useful resource for seed professionals and anyone else with an interest in, or a need to know about, noxious weed disseminules. <br />Thirty-one families are currently represented on the FNW list as of 2013. Most of the taxa are individual species, but two are species complexes, Rubus fruticosus L. agg. and Salvinia auriculata complex (not included in the app key since an aquatic ferm), and one is an infraspecific taxon (Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. &amp; Schult. ssp. pallidefusca (Schumach) B. K. Simon). Note that fact sheets for the FNW species of six genera Aeginetia, Alectra, Cuscuta, Moraea, Orobanche, Striga have been treated together in their own &quot;genus-level&quot; fact sheets. <br />The three interactive family keys include only those FNW taxa that produce seed and fruit disseminules (i.e., angiosperms). Eight taxa are not included in the interactive keys either because they lack angiosperm sexual reproduction altogether or they produce seed only rarely. One group lacking fruits and seeds are the ferns, which reproduce via spores as well as by vegetative means. Reproduction via vegetative disseminules is the primary means of dispersal for some non-ferns (three angiosperms and an alga) as well. The eight taxa not in the keys are the terrestial ferns Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw. and Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br., the aquatic ferns Azolla pinnata R.Br. and the Salvinia auriculata complex, the aquatic angiosperms Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss, the sterile angiosperm hybrid Opuntia aurantiaca Lindl., and the alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) Agardh. <br />All photographic images were produced by the authors except where acknowledged in image captions. See FNW tool for proper guidelines for use and citation of images. The majority of original illustrations were drawn by Lesley Randall. The remainder were drawn by Ingrid Hogle and Julia Scher. Drawings by Lynda E. Chandler are from Gunn and Ritchie (1988). Drawings by Regina O. Hughes are from Terrell and Peterson (1993) and Reed (1977). <br />Key authors: Julia Scher and Deena Walters <br />This key is part of a complete FNW tool: http://itp.lucidcentral.org/id/fnw/ <br />Lucid Mobile key developed by USDA APHIS ITP <br />在美国农业部(USDA)的官员已经确定,不是当地的美国某些物种成为入侵的风险,他们应该进入这个国家。作为其努力的一部分,以防止引进侵入性或潜在入侵杂草“联邦有害杂草”(FNW)(7 CFR 360.200和361.6),美国农业部维持正式名单。这个名单上的许多类群是目前严重的杂草,在世界其他地方,约三分之二的类群,目前在美国发现FNW类群是被子植物,不过也有一些蕨类植物和一个是绿藻。注:不包括在这个程序中,蕨类植物和藻类。 <br />水果和种子是植物散殖最负责的杂草蔓延到新的地区。散殖美国键联邦有毒杂草的开发,使准确识别FNW被子植物散殖。三个按键(牧草=禾本科植物,豆类和其他豆科植物;被子植物科)设计用于美国港口负责植物病虫害鉴定官员。这也可能是种子的专业人士和其他有兴趣的人,或需要了解,有毒杂草散殖的有用资源。 <br />三十一户人家正在代表FNW名单于2013年。大部分的类群是个别品种,但两个物种复合,悬fruticosus L. AGG。和的槐叶蕨复杂(不包括水产品的固定汇率机制,因为在应用程序键),一个是同类群(狗尾草荔(Poir.)香椿。舒尔特。 SSP。 pallidefusca (Schumach)BK西门)。需要注意的是事实表FNW物种,六属 Aeginetia , Alectra ,菟丝子,的 Moraea ,列当,独脚在自己的“属”事实表已一并处理。 <br />三个互动的家庭键只包括那些FNW类群,生产种子和果实的散殖(即,被子植物)。八种不包括在互动式的键,或者是因为他们完全缺乏被子植物有性生殖或它们产生的种子只有很少。一组缺乏水果和种子蕨类植物,通过孢子繁殖,以及由无性方式。通过营养散殖繁殖是一些非蕨类植物(被子植物及藻类)以及扩散的主要手段。八个类群不键terrestial的蕨类植物的海金沙flexuosum (L.)SW。和海金沙microphyllum (Cav.)R.溴,水生蕨类植物满江红 R.Br.和在槐叶蕨复杂,水生被子植物黑藻(LF)罗伊尔和的卷蜈蚣草主要(雷德利)的莫斯,无菌被子植物混合仙人掌aurantiaca 石斛,并藻类的蕨藻taxifolia (VAHL)Agardh。 <br />所有摄影图像制作的作者在图片说明中承认除外。见FNW工具使用和引用的图像的正确指引。大部分原作插画绘制由莱斯利兰德尔。其余的被画由英格丽霍格尔和朱莉娅谢尔。琳达E.钱德勒的图纸冈恩和Ritchie(1988)。图纸由伊利O.休斯Terrell的和彼得森(1993)和Reed(1977)。 <br />作者:朱莉娅谢尔和蒂娜&middot;沃尔特斯的 <br />这关键是一个完整的FNW工具的一部分:http://itp.lucidcentral.org/id/fnw/ <br />清醒的移动开发重点由美国农业部动植物卫生检疫局ITP <br />
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